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Ch. 16 A&P

1.

Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ________.

Hormones

2.

Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system.

the 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 FalseFalse

3.

All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA.

T

4.

Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?

a change in membrane potential

direct control of the nervous system

the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis

an increase in enzymatic activity

direct control of the nervous system

5.

The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on ________.

the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ

6.

reverses diabetes type 2 blood pressure (πŸ”΄ risk) | reverses diabetes type 2 straight talkhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to ________.

steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells

7.

What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid–based hormones?

for 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 CalciumCalcium

8.

Both "turn on" factors (hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli) and "turn off" factors (feedback inhibition and others) may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system.

T

9.

Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their the 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 effects through intracellular ________.Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ________.

Second messengers

10.

Which of the following is not a type of hormone interaction?

synergism

feedback

antagonism

permissiveness

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11.

Which of the following is not a change typically produced by a hormonal stimulus?

induces secretory activity

stimulates production of an action potential

activates or deactivates enzymes

alters for 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 plasma membrane permeabilityWhich of the following is not a change typically produced by a hormonal stimulus?

induces secretory activity

stimulates production of an action potential

activates or deactivates enzymes

alters plasma membrane permeability

reverses diabetes type 2 is characterized by (πŸ‘ korean) | reverses diabetes type 2 symptoms womenhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for stimulates production for 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 of an action potentialstimulates production of an action potential

12.

The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ________.

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13.

Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because ________.

G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers

14.

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possible activation of several different second-messenger systems

15.

In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ. This is known as ________.

up-regulation

16.

ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones.

T

17.

LH is also referred to as a gonadotropin.

t

18.

Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions.

T

19.

The hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract ________.

is partly contained within the infundibulum

20.

Oxytocin ________.

release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism

21.

What role do the kidneys play in erythropoiesis?

The kidneys detect low levels of oxygen in the blood.

22.

What triggers erythropoietin (EPO) production to make new red blood cells?

reduced availability of oxygen

23.

What organ in the body regulates erythrocyte production?

kidney

24.

Peptides called NPY and AgRP are powerful appetite enhancers.

T

25.

Ghrelin, produced by the stomach, is a powerful appetite stimulant.

T

26.

Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?

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27.

The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining BMR.

thyroxine

28.

When blood glucose levels are low, the body begins to use more noncarbohydrate fuels for energy production. This process is the 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 called glucose activation.When blood glucose levels are low, the body begins to use more noncarbohydrate fuels for energy production. This process is called glucose activation.

F

29.

The preferred energy fuel for the brain is fat.

F

30.

The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.

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31.

Glucose can be obtained from ________.

glycogenolysis

32.

Which of the choices below is not a source of glucose during the postabsorptive state?

absorption of glucose from the GI tract
lipolysis in adipose tissues and the liver
glycogenolysis in the liver
catabolism of cellular protein

absorption of glucose from the GI tract

33.

Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state?

insulin

34.

Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?

Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.

35.

Where are oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) made? Select from letters A-D.

A

36.

Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?

enzyme

37.

Which of the choices below is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction?

type of hormone

38.

Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone?

epinephrine

39.

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hydrocortisones

40.

Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference?

It does not require a second messenger to effect a the 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 response.It does not require a second messenger to effect a response.

41.

Steroid hormones exert their action by ________.

entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene

42.

Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because ________.

during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes

43.

One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?

humoral stimulation

44.

ADH ________.

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45.

Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.

hypophyseal the 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 portal systemhypophyseal portal system

46.

The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because ________.

it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release

47.

The major targets of growth hormone are ________.

bones and skeletal muscles

48.

Regulating hormones from the hypothalamus ________.

first enter into the hypophyseal portal system

49.

Why does antidiuretic hormone help regulate an abnormal increase in solute concentration in the extracellular fluid?

It causes reabsorption of water by the kidney, resulting in increased blood water volume and a decreased solute concentration.

50.

Oxytocin and ADH are produced in the posterior pituitary.

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51.

Growth hormone solely exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones.

f

52.

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secretion is regulated by a hypothalamic regulatory hormone

53.

A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating the 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem.A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem.

FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes.

54.

Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine.

t

55.

The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.

the 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 ff

56.

Thyroid hormone production requires the presence of iodine and calcium.

f

57.

Which of the following is not a parathyroid gland mechanism to maintain adequate levels of blood calcium?

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58.

The single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood is ________.

parathyroid hormone

59.

The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis.

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60.

Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure the 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodium.Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodium.

T

61.

Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually enhance the immune responses when an individual is suffering from severe stress.

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62.

Gluconeogenesis occurs in the liver due to the action of ________.

cortisol
secretin
aldosterone
insulin

cortisol

63.

When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is ________.

epinephrine

64.

Mineralocorticoid is to aldosterone as glucocorticoid is to ________.

cotisol

65.

The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is ________.

the 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 aldosteronealdosterone

66.

Aldosterone for 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 ________.Aldosterone ________.

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67.

Addison''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space'' disease

102.

Which hormone is the body''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''s for 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 syndrome and aldosteronism have the same effects on ______.Which hormone is the body''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''s syndrome and aldosteronism have the same effects on ______.

blood pressure

109.

Which hormone(s) is/are essential for 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 to our ability to deal with stress?Which hormone(s) is/are essential to our ability to deal with stress?

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110.

Which of the following adrenal gland homeostatic imbalances is characterized by persistent elevated blood glucose levels, dramatic losses in muscle and bone protein, and water and salt retention, leading to hypertension and edema?

Cushing''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space'' disease

133.

Name two hormones produced by the gland identified by letter B.

thyroid hormones and calcitonin

134.

Hypocalcemia could be caused by the ______.

all are correct

135.

Which of the following hormones regulates blood calcium ion levels?

parathyroid hormone

136.

What type of stimulation controls parathyroid release?

humoral

137.

What cells release parathyroid hormone?

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138.

Two adrenal glands make hormones that the 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 are essential for life. However, in adrenogenital syndrome, females develop a beard and a masculine pattern of body hair distribution; this occurs due to ______.Two adrenal glands make hormones that are essential for life. However, in adrenogenital syndrome, females develop a beard and a masculine pattern of body hair distribution; this occurs due to ______.

lack of enzymes the adrenal gland needs to make cortisol and aldosterone

139.

Pheochromocytoma produces symptoms of uncontrolled sympathetic nervous system activity. Which of the following is common to both adrenal chromaffin cells and adrenergic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system?

secretion of norepinephrine

140.

Which of the following pairs correctly matches the adrenal gland zone or area with the class of hormones it produces?

zona glomerulosa: mineralocorticoids

141.

Which of the following glands is found atop the kidneys?

adrenal

142.

What factor inhibits aldosterone release? Select from letters A-D.

d

143.

Which letter represents the hormone that promotes a decrease in blood pressure and a loss of sodium and water in urine? Select from letters A-D.

d

144.

Which pancreatic hormone functions to lower blood glucose levels?

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145.

Which of the following structures does/does NOT produce a hormone or hormones?

lungs

146.

Which of the following best describes the main effects of insulin?

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147.

Which of the following is a hypoglycemic hormone?

insulin

148.

Which hormone is involved in diabetes mellitus (DM)?

for 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 insulininsulin

149.

Which of the following triggers the release of glucagon?

a decrease in blood glucose levels

150.

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release of glucagon by the pancreatic islets

151.

Which of the following best describes gluconeogenesis?

synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources

152.

Hormones are long-distance chemical signals that travel in blood or lymph throughout the body.

t

153.

Which of the following statements is most correct regarding the intracellular chemical signals known as "second messengers"?

Cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengers.

154.

Nitric oxide is known to be the first gas to act as a biological messenger.

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155.

Riboswitches are folded RNAs that act as switches to turn protein synthesis on or off in response to _________.

changes in the environment

156.

Which of the following does not serve as a signal for cell division?

repressor genes

157.

__________ is a substance in food used by the body to promote normal growth, maintenance, and repair.

A nutrient

158.

Neurons and red blood cells rely exclusively on __________ to meet their energy needs.

for 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 glucoseglucose

159.

__________ refers to reactions in which large molecules are broken down into smaller molecules.

Catabolism

160.

Glycolysis occurs in the __________ of cells and is an __________ process.

cytosol; anaerobic

161.

What is the primary function of cellular respiration - its end-purpose?

to generate ATP

162.

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amino acids

163.

__________ is the key hormone regulator of for 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 the absorptive state.__________ is the key hormone regulator of the absorptive state.

insulin

164.

The primary goal during the postabsorptive state for 1 last update 04 Aug 2020 is to __________.The primary goal during the postabsorptive state is to __________.

maintain blood glucose levels within an adequate range

165.

During ketosis caused by inadequate ingestion of carbohydrates, ______.

the glycogen content of the liver is reduced

166.

Which nutrient molecule is the pivotal fuel molecule in the oxidative pathways?

glucose

167.

Which of the following is NOT a pathway in the oxidation of glucose?

gluconeogenesis

168.

Which term describes the breakdown of stored fats into glycerol and fatty acids?

lipolysis

169.

The body''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space''pl-nc''pl-num''pl-side-data''true''tmce-no-space''pl-side-data''false''tmce-no-space'>

t