reverses diabetes type 2

πŸ”₯+ reverses diabetes type 2 03 Aug 2020 Type 2 diabetes (also called type 2 diabetes mellitus) is a disorder that is known for disrupting the way your body uses glucose (sugar); it also ...

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reverses diabetes type 2 and alcohol (πŸ”₯ genetics nature) | reverses diabetes type 2 too much insulinhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for Exam 4: Ch. 45: Hormones & the Endocrine System

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Campbell Biology
Chapter 45
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1

reverses diabetes type 2 with mellitus (πŸ‘ episode) | reverses diabetes type 2 neuropathy treatmenthow to reverses diabetes type 2 for The hormone epinephrine causes opposite effects in two populations of target cells because _____.

A. epinephrine can only reach target cells in adipose tissue, as it is fat-solubleepinephrine activates biochemical pathways in one set of target cells but works only by changing gene expression in the other set of target cells

B. the chemical form of epinephrine released by neurons is different from the epinephrine released by endocrine cells

C. epinephrine crosses the membrane on one set of target cells but binds to membrane-bound receptors in the other set of target cells

D. each set of target cells has different receptor-transduction mechanisms

D. each set of target cells has different receptor-transduction mechanisms

Look at the epinephrine example in your text. That hormone can trigger different responses in different target for 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 cells. Epinephrine can trigger vasodilation responses (blood vessels in skeletal muscles used for fight-or-flight) and vasoconstriction responses (gut vasculature) in an emergency that evokes its secretion.Look at the epinephrine example in your text. That hormone can trigger different responses in different target cells. Epinephrine can trigger vasodilation responses (blood vessels in skeletal muscles used for fight-or-flight) and vasoconstriction responses (gut vasculature) in an emergency that evokes its secretion.

2

reverses diabetes type 2 level (β˜‘ lunch) | reverses diabetes type 2 pathophysiologyhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for Steroid and peptide hormones typically have in common _____.

A. their requirement for travel through the bloodstream

B. the building blocks from which they are synthesized

reverses diabetes type 2 mellitus (πŸ”₯ glut4) | reverses diabetes type 2 essayhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for C. their reliance on signal transduction in the cell

D. their solubility in cell membranes

the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020

A. their requirement for travel through the bloodstream

3

Calculate the volume of blood moved per minute by a heart at rest.

A heart "at rest" beats at a rate of 72 beats per minute and moves 70 milliliters (mL) of blood per beat.

When the heart is stimulated by epinephrine (the fight or flight hormone), the heart rate doubles and the volume of blood moved per beat triples.

The total volume of blood moved in one minute by a resting heart = the number of beats in a minute x the volume of blood moved per beat

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4

Calculate the volume of blood moved per minute by a heart that has been stimulated by epinephrine.

The heart rate at rest is 72 beats per minute. Stimulation with epinephrine doubles the heart rate to 144 beats per minute. The blood volume moved per beat at rest is 70 mL. Stimulation with epinephrine triples the volume moved per beat to 210 mL.

The total volume moved per minute when the heart is stimulated is:

144 beats/1 min X 210 mL/1 min = 30240 mL/min

5

How much more blood for 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 does the heart move in a minute when stimulated compared to at rest?How much more blood does the heart move in a minute when stimulated compared to at rest?

At rest, 5040 mL of blood is moved per minute. When the heart is stimulated, 30240 mL of blood is moved per minute. To calculate how much more blood is moved per minute for 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 during stimulation:At rest, 5040 mL of blood is moved per minute. When the heart is stimulated, 30240 mL of blood is moved per minute. To calculate how much more blood is moved per minute during stimulation:

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6

What is the percent increase in blood flow due to stimulation?

To find the percent increase, compare the increase to the value at rest:

25200/5040 = 5 = 5.00 = 500%

A 500% increase means that 5 times more blood is pumped when the heart is stimulated by epinephrine than when it is at rest.

7

Receptors for nonsteroid hormones are located in _____.

reverses diabetes type 2 yo mama (β˜‘ natural medications) | reverses diabetes type 2 nature journalhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for A. the extracellular fluid

B. the cytoplasmthe nucleus

C. the cytosol

D. association with a cell''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''s plasma membrane

Since nonsteroid hormones do not cross a cell''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''s DNA; steroid hormones do not bind to a cell''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''s DNA

C. they are too large to enter a cell and therefore must first bind to a plasma membrane receptor before having an effect on a cell

D. target cells tend to ignore steroid hormones in favor of nonsteroid hormones

E. they turn genes on or off and it takes time for gene products to build up or become depleted

the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020

E. they turn genes on or off and it takes time for gene products to build up or become depleted

This is the primary reason that steroid hormones usually act slowly.

12

Steroid hormone-receptor complexes act in _____.

A. the nucleus

B. lysosomes

C. vesicles

D. the cytoplasm

E. the plasma membrane

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A. the nucleus

Steroid hormone-receptor complexes bind to DNA, where they affect transcription.

13

reverses diabetes type 2 olives (β˜‘ early symptoms) | reverses diabetes type 2 compared to type 1how to reverses diabetes type 2 for What property of steroid hormones allows them to cross the phospholipid bilayer?

A. Steroid hormones can act in very small concentrations and very few molecules of steroids need to cross the lipid bilayer.

B. Steroid hormones are lipid soluble and easily cross the phospholipid bilayer.

C. Steroid hormones act on cells close to where they were produced and very few molecules are required to travel such a short distance to cross the lipid bilayer.

D. Steroid hormones act on the same cells in which they are produced and, therefore, are within the cell they are acting upon.

B. Steroid hormones are lipid soluble and easily cross the phospholipid bilayer.

14

Growth factors are local regulators that _____.

A. bind to cell-surface receptors for 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 and stimulate growth and development of target cellsA. bind to cell-surface receptors and stimulate growth and development of target cells

B. convey messages the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 between nerve cellsB. convey messages between nerve cells

C. are found on the surface of cancer cells and stimulate abnormal cell division

D. are modified fatty acids that stimulate bone and cartilage growth

A. bind to cell-surface receptors and stimulate growth and development of target cells

15

Different body cells can respond differently to the same peptide hormones because _____.

A. different target cells have different sets of genes

B. the hormone is chemically altered in different ways as it travels through the circulatory system

C. the circulatory system regulates responses to hormones by routing the hormones to specific targets

D. a target cell''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''s response is determined by the components of its signal transduction pathways

16

reverses diabetes type 2 mellitus without complication (β˜‘ uncontrolled icd 10) | reverses diabetes type 2 obesityhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for Maintaining homeostasis

An animal’s body maintains a relatively constant internal environment. How is this accomplished? It is surprisingly similar to the way a thermostat and heating system maintain a relatively constant temperature the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 inside a room.An animal’s body maintains a relatively constant internal environment. How is this accomplished? It is surprisingly similar to the way a thermostat and heating system maintain a relatively constant temperature inside a room.

Drag the terms on the left to the appropriate blanks on the right to complete the sentences. Not all terms will be used.

The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment is known as homeostasis. To achieve homeostasis, the body has a wide variety of sensors that detect and trigger responses to different stimuli.

Negative feedback, in which the body’s response reduces the stimulus, is an important mechanism for maintaining homeostasis.

17

Controlling blood glucose levels

In the animation, you saw that both high blood glucose levels and low blood glucose levels are stimuli that trigger specific responses by the body. These responses cause blood glucose levels to return to their normal range. In this activity, you will explore how this happens. Drag the labels to their appropriate locations on the diagram.

Insulin and glucagon act together to maintain homeostasis of blood glucose levels.

  • When blood glucose levels rise, insulin is released. Insulin causes the liver to take up glucose and convert it to glycogen. Insulin also causes most cells in the body to take up glucose. As a result, blood glucose returns to its normal range.
  • When blood glucose levels fall, glucagon is released. Glucagon causes the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood. As a result, blood glucose returns to its normal range.
18

Diabetes: Disrupting blood glucose homeostasis

In the disorder diabetes mellitus, the body is unable to maintain homeostasis of blood glucose. There are two major types of diabetes, type 1 and type 2.

The graphs below show blood levels of glucose and insulin in three patients after each has consumed a sugary soft drink. Use the graphs to identify which patient is healthy, which has type 1 diabetes, and which has type 2 diabetes.

Drag the labels to their appropriate locations above the graphs.

In people with diabetes mellitus, the body is unable to maintain homeostasis of blood glucose.

  • In type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys most of the beta cells of the pancreas. Little or no insulin is produced. As a result, blood glucose levels remain elevated for a longer period than in healthy individuals.
  • In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas produces sufficient insulin. However, the body''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''s activation of the mother''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''s reaction to PTH (parathyroid hormone), raising plasma levels of calcium, can be opposed by _____.

    A. calcitonin

    B. growth hormone

    C. epinephrine

    D. thyroxine

A. calcitonin

26

DES is called an "endocrine disrupting chemical" because it structurally resembles, and interferes with, the endocrine secretions of the _____.

A. hypothalamus

B. thyroid gland

C. adrenal medulla

D. ovaries

D. ovaries

27

Of the following types of molecules, which can function as both neurotransmitters and hormones?

A. second messengers

B. glucocorticoids

C. adipocytes

D. catecholamines

for 1 last update 03 Aug 2020

D. catecholamines

28

Which of these glands secretes releasing hormones?

A. hypothalamus

reverses diabetes type 2 treatment side effect (πŸ”₯ diagnostic procedures) | reverses diabetes type 2 pancreashow to reverses diabetes type 2 for B. adrenal cortex

C. thymus

D. ovaries

E. testes

reverses diabetes type 2 young age (πŸ”΄ high blood sugar) | reverses diabetes type 2 warning signshow to reverses diabetes type 2 for A. hypothalamus

The hypothalamus secretes both releasing and inhibiting hormones.

29

Which of these hormones are responsible for the "fight or flight" response to danger?

A. insulin and glucagon

B. thyroxine and the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 calcitoninB. thyroxine and calcitonin

C. androgens and estrogens

D. antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin

E. epinephrine and norepinephrine

E. epinephrine and norepinephrine

These hormones, secreted by the adrenal medulla, are responsible for the "fight or flight" response.

30

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) triggers the release of _____ in response to stress.

A. melatonin

B. insulin

C. glucocorticoids

for 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 D. thymosinD. thymosin

E. parathyroid hormone

reverses diabetes type 2 diet plan lose weight (πŸ”₯ virus) | reverses diabetes type 2 therapeutic procedureshow to reverses diabetes type 2 for In response to stress, ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids.

C. glucocorticoids

31

_____ are the main male hormones.

for 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 A. ProgesteronesA. Progesterones

B. Mineralocorticoids

C. Androgens

D. Luteinizing hormones

E. Estrogens

C. Androgens

Androgens, such as testosterone, are the main male hormones.

32

What hormone promotes water retention by the kidneys?

reverses diabetes type 2 effects (πŸ‘ wounds) | reverses diabetes type 2 usually develops rapidlyhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for A. follicle-stimulating the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 hormone (FSH)A. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

B. prolactin

C. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

D. melatonin

E. glucagon

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A diuretic promotes water loss; thus it makes sense that ADH (secreted by the anterior pituitary) promotes water conservation.

33

Which hormone opposes the action of parathyroid hormone?

A. calcitonin

B. insulin

C. thyroxine

D. thymosin

E. glucagon

A. calcitonin

Parathyroid hormone increases blood calcium levels; calcitonin lowers blood calcium levels.

34

reverses diabetes type 2 case study (πŸ‘ urine test) | reverses diabetes type 2 youthhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for Which hormone stimulates hormone production by the ovaries and testes?

A. progesterone

B. testosterone

reverses diabetes type 2 onset (⭐️ glucose levels chart) | reverses diabetes type 2 linkhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for C. glucocorticoids

reverses diabetes type 2 and obesity (πŸ”₯ blood sugar) | reverses diabetes type 2 explainedhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for D. luteinizing hormone (LH)

for 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 E. estrogensE. estrogens

reverses diabetes type 2 food list (πŸ‘ janumet) | reverses diabetes type 2 in childrenhow to reverses diabetes type 2 for D. luteinizing hormone (LH)

LH stimulates hormone production by the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 both the ovaries and testes.LH stimulates hormone production by both the ovaries and testes.

35

Which hormone stimulates milk production?

reverses diabetes type 2 teens (πŸ”₯ naturally) | reverses diabetes type 2 quorahow to reverses diabetes type 2 for A. parathyroid hormone

B. mineralocorticoids

C. prolactin

D. thyroid-stimulating the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 hormone (TSH)D. thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

for 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 E. thymosinE. thymosin

the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020

C. prolactin

Prolactin, secreted by the anterior pituitary, stimulates milk production by the mammary glands.

36

Jet lag occurs when a person moves rapidly from one time zone to another, causing conflict between the body''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''def tmce-no-space nopad-lists''unmarked-card''vs-card''term''set-num''term-text tmce-no-space nopad-lists''ei''../uploads/597/84/6645d46c_151a22e0018__8000_00018805.png''card image'' ovaries were removed immediately after impregnation and then the rats were divided into two groups. Treatments and results are summarized in the table above. The results most likely occurred because progesterone exerts an effect on the _____.

A. gestation period of rats

B. metabolism of the uterus

C. general health of the rat

D. number of eggs fertilized

B. metabolism of the uterus

40

Vertebrates have two major communication and control systems: the endocrine system and the nervous system. Choose the correct statement describing the coordination of these systems.

A. Epinephrine functions as a hormone in the endocrine system and as a neurotransmitter the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 in the nervous system.A. Epinephrine functions as a hormone in the endocrine system and as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system.

B. The parathryroid gland is a fused endocrine and neuroendocrine gland.

C. The adrenal cortex secretes hormones in response to nervous stimulation.

A. Epinephrine functions as a hormone in the endocrine system and as a neurotransmitter in the nervous system.

The same is true of norepinephrine. Read about adrenal hormones.

41

Glucose homeostasis is maintained by two antagonistic hormones, insulin and glucagon. Select the correct statement about these hormones.

A. Each of these hormones operates in a simple the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 neuroendocrine pathway.A. Each of these hormones operates in a simple neuroendocrine pathway.

B. Each of these hormones operates in a simple endocrine pathway.

C. The two hormones interact in a hormone cascade pathway.

C. The two hormones interact the 1 last update 03 Aug 2020 in a hormone cascade pathway.C. The two hormones interact in a hormone cascade pathway.

Read about simple hormone pathways and control of blood glucose.